1. PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS (Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Theory- Two papers– 200 marks (100 each paper)
Total teaching hours: 150 hours
PAPER-I (100marks) – Padartha Vigyanam
PART A (50 marks)
- 1.1 Lakshana of Ayu, composition of Ayu.
- 1.2 Lakshana of Ayurveda.
- 1.3 Lakshana and classification of Siddhanta.
- 1.4 Introduction to basic principles of Ayurveda and their significance.
2. Ayurveda Darshana Nirupana
- 2.1 Philosophical background of fundamentals of Ayurveda.
- 2.2 Etymological derivation of the word “Darshana”. Classification and general
introduction to schools of Indian Philosophy with an emphasis on: Nyaya,
Vaisheshika, Sankhya and Yoga.
- 2.3 Ayurveda as unique and independent school of thought (philosophical individuality
- 2.4 Padartha: Lakshana, enumeration and classification, Bhava and Abhava padartha,
Padartha according to Charaka (Karana-Padartha).
3. Dravya Vigyaniyam
- 3.1 Dravya: Lakshana, classification and enumeration.
- 3.2 Panchabhuta: Various theories regarding the creation (theories of
Taittiriyopanishad, Nyaya-Vaisheshika, Sankhya-Yoga, Sankaracharya, Charaka and
Susruta), Lakshana and qualities of each Bhoota.
- 3.3 Kaala: Etymological derivation, Lakshana and division / units, significance in
- 3.4 Dik: Lakshana and division, significance in Ayurveda.
- 3.5 Atma:Lakshana, classification, seat, Gunas, Linga according to Charaka, the
method / process of knowledge formation (atmanah jnasya pravrittih).
- 3.6 Purusha: as mentioned in Ayurveda – Ativahikapurusha/ Sukshmasharira/
Rashipurusha/ Chikitsapurusha/ Karmapurusha/ Shaddhatvatmakapurusha.
- 3.7 Manas: Lakshana, synonyms, qualities, objects, functions, dual nature of mind
(ubhayaatmakatvam), as a substratum of diseases, penta-elemental nature
- 3.8 Role of Panchamahabhuta and Triguna in Dehaprakriti and Manasaprakriti
- 3.9 Tamas as the tenth Dravya.
- 3.10 Practical study/application in Ayurveda.
PART B (50 marks)
- 4.1 Etymological derivation, classification and enumeration according to NyayaVaisheshika
and Charaka, Artha, Gurvadiguna, Paradiguna, Adhyatmaguna.
- 4.2 Lakshana and classification of all the 41 gunas.
- 4.3 Practical / clinical application in Ayurveda.
5. Karma Vigyaniyam
- 5.1 Lakshana, classification in Nyaya.
- 5.2 Description according to Ayurveda.
- 5.3 Practical study/ application in Ayurveda.
6. Samanya Vigyaniyam
- 6.1 Lakshana, classification.
- 6.2 Practical study/ application with reference to Dravya, Guna and Karma.
7. Vishesha Vigyaniyam
- 7.1 Lakshana, classification.
- 7.2 Practical study/ application with reference to Dravya, Guna and Karma.
- 7.3 Significance of the statement “Pravrittirubhayasya tu”.
8. Samavaya Vigyaniyam
- 8.1 Lakshana
- 8.2 Practical study /clinical application in Ayurveda.
9. Abhava Vigyaniyam
- 9.1 Lakshana, classification
- 9.2 Clinical significances in Ayurveda.
PAPER II (100 marks) -Padartha Vigyan and Ayurveda Itihas
PART A – Pramana/ Pariksha- Vigyaniyam (75 marks)
- 1.1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
- 1.2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
- 1.3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana according to
different schools of philosophy.
- 1.4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-Parikshavidhi),
Pramana in Ayurveda.
- 1.5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
- 1.6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
- 2.1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
- 2.2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
- 2.3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya. Shaktigrahahetu.
- 2.4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata, Sannidhi.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
- 3.1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
- 3.2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
- 3.3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description of
Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of Indriya.
- 3.4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
- 3.5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran), enhancement of
direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/ equipments, necessity of
other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha.
- 3.6. Practical study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics
and research grounds.
- 4.1. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
- 4.2. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
- 4.3. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
- 4.4. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
- 4.5. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological, diagnostic,
therapeutics and research.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
- 5.1. Lakshana and discussion.
- 5.2. Importance in Ayurveda.
- 5.3. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
6. Upamana Pramana
- 6.1 Lakshana.
- 6.2 Application in therapeutics and research.
7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
- 7.1. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
- 7.2. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
- 7.3. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada, Paramanuvada,
Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada, Pilupaka, Pitharpaka,
PART B – Ayurved Itihas (25 marks)
1. Etymological derivation (Vyutpatti), syntactical derivation (Niruktti) and definition of the
word Itihas, necessity of knowledge of history, its significance and utility, means and
method of history, historical person (Vyakti), subject (Vishaya), time period (Kaal),
happening (Ghatana) and their impact on Ayurveda.
2. Introduction to the authors of classical texts during Samhitakaal and their contribution:
Atreya, Dhanwantari, Kashyapa, Agnivesha, Sushruta, Bhela, Harita, Charaka,Dridhabala, Vagbhata, Nagarjuna, Jivaka.
3. Introduction to the commentators of classical Samhitas – Bhattaraharicchandra,
Jejjata, Chakrapani, Dalhana, Nishchalakara, Vijayarakshita, Gayadas, Arunadutta,
Hemadri, Gangadhara, Yogindranath Sen, Haranachandra, Indu.
4. Introduction to the authors of compendiums (Granthasamgrahakaala) – Bhavmishra,
Sharngadhara, Vrinda, Madhavakara, Shodhala, Govinda Das (Author of
5. Introduction to the authors of Modern era –Gana Nath Sen, Yamini Bhushan Rai,
Shankar Dajishastri Pade, Swami Lakshmiram, Yadavji Tikramji, Dr. P. M. Mehta,
Ghanekar, Damodar Sharma Gaur, Priyavrat Sharma.
6. Globalization of Ayurveda – Expansion of Ayurveda in Misra (Egypt), Sri Lanka, Nepal
- a) Developmental activities in Ayurveda in the post-independence period, development
in educational trends.
- b) Establishment of different committees, their recommendations.
- c) Introduction to and activities of the following Organizations :- Department of AYUSH,
Central Council of Indian Medicine, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic
Sciences, Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia commission, National Medicinal Plants Board,
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)
- d) Introduction to the following National Institutions :
National Institute of Ayurved, Jaipur.
IPGT&RA, Gujrat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.
Faculty of Ayurved, BHU, Varanasi.
Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeetha, New Delhi.
- e) Drug and Cosmetic Act.
8. Introduction to national & international popular journals of Ayurveda.
9. Introduction to activities of WHO in the promotion of Ayurved.